Information accessibility today is so far advanced from where we were even ten or twenty years ago. Anyone who can read has all kinds of information right at their fingertips, ranging from medical journals to popular science articles to celebrity news articles, so you’d think that our society would be able to arm themselves with the facts for how to make healthy choices in life. Unfortunately, for many people, science seems completely inaccessible; even though they could technically find anything they’re looking for, many people lack the ability understand the material, or to sort through what is true and what is not.
The US Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion defines health literacy as “the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.”
According to the this same entity, the ODPHP, only around 12% of Americans are considered proficient in health literacy. This means that the other 88% of the nation can be given all of the information they need to be able to make the healthy choices in life and avoid many preventable illnesses, but they may not fully understand what this information means to them or how to apply it. This creates an enormous barrier for healthcare professionals, particularly those of us working in public health.
Pseudoscience is a term that describes beliefs or principles that are mistakenly believed to be based on scientific method. Unfortunately, the internet is inundated with information that is widely regarded as being factual evidence that supports the beliefs of many people, when in reality, it is nothing more than pseudoscience. This has posed a problem for the scientific community and has contributed to such enormous public health problems such as the anti-vaccination movement.
The field of nutrition has not escaped the waves of popular pseudoscience; many people have read testimonials about drinking your coffee with MCT oils in it to lose weight and “stay energized, without the midday crash!” and become immediately convinced that they need to drink their coffee with a stick of butter. The gluten-free diet is another of these phenomena that has huge populations of people converted to the gluten-free lifestyle. But, as Jimmy Kimmel found out, some people who follow a gluten-free diet don’t even know what gluten is, let alone whether or not they should actually be eating it.
WHO ARE THE EXPERTS?
To further confuse the issue, the difference between a nutritionist and a dietitian is not well understood among the general population. In the U.S., the title”nutritionist” is not federally regulated. It’s up to the states to decide whether they want to regulate the title of nutritionist, while “registered dietitian” is; one has to earn the title of RD with a B.S. from an accredited institution, then complete an accredited internship, and then pass your RD exams. So in some states, anyone can legally call themselves a nutritionist. This further complicates the plethora of information that people have to sort through to get actual, science-based health information.
HOW THIS ALL AFFECTS THE MARKET
Unfortunately for uniformed consumers, misinformation can be a big selling point. People can become convinced that they need to buy all kinds of things to be living the most healthy possible life. All natural foods! Dietary supplements! DHA added! Many industries take advantage of people who may not have a scientific or healthcare background. If you’re at all unsure of what you should or should not be adding to or removing from your diet, try to arm yourself with the facts (actual facts, not alternative ones).
Huge corporations have a history of hijacking our popular beliefs or mob mentality: some of you may be old enough to remember when it was still legal to smoke in restaurants and public buildings, even planes. Tobacco corporations were aggressively marketing at the general public, who was being led to believe that it was harmless. Thanks to the valiant efforts of our nation’s public health heroes, smoking among adults went from 42.4% in 1965 to 24.7% in 1997. In my first blog post, I discussed the incredible difference public health can make when teamed with other entities for a common goal, and this considerable decrease in tobacco use during the late 20th century is no exception.
Today, many giants in the food and nutritional supplement industry are hopping on that train once again; prebiotics can be found in granola bars and juice, the words “all natural” are plastered on everything from shampoo to laundry detergent, all in the hopes that people who think this sounds good will but it!
HOW SHOULD WE KNOW WHAT TO BELIEVE?
Until we make some serious changes in public health and our educational system, scientific and health literacy will continue to plague our society. Many determined public healthcare professionals are crusading to help people become advocates for their own health, and although this is an uphill battle, it can be done.
The most simple pieces of advice I can give to those who are uncertain about their healthcare or nutritional choices are these:
- Find a doctor for general health issues, and a registered dietitian that you trust to go to with your nutrition concerns. Don’t be afraid to get a second opinion!
- If you’re into doing your own research, skip the documentaries and find peer-reviewed nutrition or medical journals.
- Always check an article’s sources; Wikipedia is not a source.
While the medical field is always expanding and recommendations can change, it’s important to stay informed in this age of information. Being informed and educated by reliable sources can help you from being confused about which information is real and which isn’t. Remember that any regular person with a computer can write an article and make it seem trustworthy, so don’t believe everything you see on the internet.